Python

Posts about the Python scripting language.

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Conway's Game Of Life With Tkinter In Python

28th November 2021 - 15 minutes read time

Conway's game of life, was devised by John Conway in 1970 and is a way of modelling very simple cell population dynamics. The game takes place on a two dimensional board containing a grid of orthogonal cells. The game is technically a zero player game in that the initial setup of the game dictates the eventual evolution of the board.

The rules of the game (taken from wikipedia) are as follows.

  1. Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if by underpopulation.
  2. Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation.
  3. Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overpopulation.
  4. Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.

For every 'tick' of the game board the rules are evaluated and each cell is kept alive, given life or killed. Through these simple rules a great deal of complexity can be generated.

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Using Events With Tkinter Canvas Elements In Python

7th November 2021 - 11 minutes read time

There are lots of ways to draw objects using the Tkinter Canvas element, but making the canvas elements interactable adds a lot to the applications you create. There are a few things to take into account when binding events like what events to trigger on and how to find out what item triggered what event.

In this article I will address how to set events, how to react to their output and how to find out what element triggered the event.

Let's start by creating a very simple application that contains a Canvas element. In that Canvas we create an oval element that we can use for the rest of the examples.

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Creating A Simple Calculator Application With Tkinter In Python

31st October 2021 - 12 minutes read time

A calculator is a great application to create when learning how to code as it contains many of the things that most GUI applications will have, including behind the scenes processing of results. Things like triggering events from buttons, accepting user input, and producing output from that input are pretty standard in GUI applications and a calculator has all of them. There are also a couple of features in Python that makes building the application pretty simple. In this article I will look at designing and building the interface using Tkinter, followed by creating the code to process the entered sums into a result.

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Drawing Shapes With The Tkinter Canvas Element In Python

24th October 2021 - 16 minutes read time

The Canvas element that comes with Tkinter is quite versatile. Out of the box you can draw simple basic shapes like squares and circles, but also lines and more complex shapes made up of points. You can even add text and images to the canvas.

This article will go through all of the different types of items you can draw using the Tkinter Canvas object.

Before getting into that, it's important to understand how coordinates are used on a canvas object. Drawing items on a canvas requires the use of an x and y coordinate to pinpoint where the item is to be drawn. All points are relative to the top left hand corner, so a coordinate of 0,0 would be right in the top left corner.

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Creating A Word Clock With Python And Tkinter

10th October 2021 - 17 minutes read time

I recently saw a design of a physical clock that inspired me to go about creating one using Python and Tkinter. The clock was essentially a wall of letters with lights behind that light up depending on what time it is. Without the lights the clock looks like a jumble of letters, it is only when the light is on that the relevant time is displayed.

The original clock was of a proprietary design so I set about creating one that was based more on an open source clock design that I found. That clock design I found didn't display the AM or PM of the time, so I ended up tweaking that design a little anyway.

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Converting The Current Time Into A Sentence In Python

3rd October 2021 - 16 minutes read time

Changing time into different formats is quite a common thing to do in programming. I have seen examples that change times into Roman numerals and other formats, but I realised I hadn't seen any code that changed the current time into a sentence. This means converting a numeric time value into a sentence that can be read. For example, the time 9:05 can be read as "it is five past nine", or if the time is 9:00 then it would read "it is nine o'clock". At it turns out, there are only a few rules that govern doing this.

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SOLID Principles In Python

26th September 2021 - 18 minutes read time

SOLID is a set of object oriented design principles aimed at making code more maintainable and flexible. They were coined by Robert "Uncle Bob" Martin in the year 2000 in his paper Design Principles and Design Patterns. The SOLID principles apply to any object oriented language, but I'm going to concentrate on what they mean in a Python application in this post.

I originally wrote about SOLID principles with PHP as the basis of the article, but as the lessons here can be easily applied to any object oriented language I thought that I would re-write it with Python in mind. If you are familiar with only PHP or Python then this will be a good learning resource on learning the other side.

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The Basics Of Object Oriented Programming In Python

19th September 2021 - 25 minutes read time

I have been learning Python recently, and whilst I'm familiar with PHP and other C-like languages, Python has been a bit of a challenge to get used to due to the different syntax. This is especially the case with objects as although Python is object oriented there are a couple of gotchas when creating custom objects. This article sets out how to use classes and objects, but I will assume that you have a basic understanding of object oriented programming in other languages.

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A Guide To Using Different Tkinter Widgets In Python

12th September 2021 - 14 minutes read time

The Python Tkinter module has a lot of widgets built in that provide different parts of the graphical user interface. Everything from labels to buttons are all widgets and they extend from the base Widget class.  Some Widgets are easy to put together, but others require a little bit of configuration to get working. This article will show each Tkinter widget available and how to add each one to an application. There are two sorts of Widgets available. Simple widgets exist in their own right, but some widgets are made to contain other widgets.

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Slicing Arrays and Strings Using The Colon Operator In Python

5th September 2021 - 7 minutes read time

Strings and arrays can be manipulated in a number of ways in python. Splitting a string or an array into sections can be done using the section slicing that is built into the core python syntax and uses the colon (:) symbol.

Generating a simple array in python is straightforward, the following creates an array of 9 elements.


an_array = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]

To grab a particular element of the array you can use the simplest section slicing syntax. The number in the square brackets represents the position of the item to be returned. Remember that the counting starts at 0, so using 1 will return the item from the "second" position.